Richard Searle


Surprising initialization of abstract Scala vals

11 Jan 2012

Consider the problem of computing deltas between entries in a stream of events.  Each event is paired with the previous value and delivered to a derived implementation. This requires an initial value to be paired with initial value, what might be called the zero.
package function
trait Delta[T] {
   def zero: T
   private var before: T = zero
   def update(current: T) {
      if (before != current) {
         delta(before, current)
         before = current
   def delta(before: T, current: T)
In the above code, the zero is provided by an abstract function. The implementation might then be
case class StringDelta extends Delta[String] {
def zero = ""
def delta(before: String, current: String) {
      println(before, current)
  This works fine, but looks a little odd. The zero is a constant, which one might expect to be defined using a val. Changing def zero to val zero¬†compiles (Scala permits abstract vals) but the run-time value is actually null. Changing the definition to be lazy, i.e. lazy val zero = "" , restores the desired behavior. The underlying implementation of lazy is obviously rather similar to def, being executed on first reference to the name.